Large-Scale Animation of Autonomous Pedestrians in Urban Environments
[ Paper to appear at SCA 2005, Sketch to appear at SIGGRAPH 2005 ]


Animation 1 (1:13) (9MB,Mpeg4): Pedestrian Activity in the Train Station

[ local access: 640x480, avi, 170MB ]
  • This animation demonstrates various activities in the train station main waiting room, including pedestrians entering the station, navigating through portals, queuing at the ticket booths to purchase tickets and at vending machines when hungry/thirsty, sitting on chairs or benches when tired, and proceeding to other parts of the station.

Animation 2 (2:30) (19MB,Mpeg4): Pedestrian Activity in the Train Station

[ local access: 640x480, avi, 347MB ]
  • This animation demonstrates pedestrian activities concurrently taking place in the train station's 2-level concourse and train platform level, including pedestrians meeting to "talk", queuing at the vending machines when hungry/thirsty, sitting on chairs or benches when tired, gathering to watch dance artist performances for amusement, and proceeding to the train platforms. The stairways leading to the train platforms are narrow, allowing only two people to walk side by side. A pedestrian steers to the right when in a narrow passageway such as the stairway that is busy with two-way traffic.

Animation 3 (0:52) (5MB,Mpeg4): Crowds Interacting in the Arcade
  • Two crowds heading in opposite directions down the arcade encounter each other. The pedestrians execute reactive behaviors in order to avoid bumping into one another. By steering, they avoid oncoming pedestrians and tend to follow other pedestrians going in the same direction. If a pedestrian detects another one directly in front, s/he will stop, wait, turn and continue. Even with such purely reactive behaviors, the virtual humans show interesting emergent group patterns. Though they are not explicitly programmed to do so, they spontaneously form interleaved lanes of pedestrians moving in opposing directions, as this tends to improve progress.

  • The video starts with an overhead wireframe visualization of the action for clarity and ends with a fully rendered sequence. .
Animation 4 (0:53) (5MB,Mpeg4): Crowds Interacting in the Arcade (2)
  • The scenario in this simulation is the same as in the first example, but this time the pedestrians perceive the arcade as a corridor that can conveniently accommodate only two major opposing traffic flows. Once oncoming people are observed, a pedestrian will prefer to head to the right. As a result, the crowds squeeze past each other to their respective right. As soon as the oncoming crowd is cleared, the pedestrians tend to spread out again if necessary in order to maximize their view and pace.

  • The video starts with an overhead view wireframe rendering mode for clarity, then switches to a fully rendered sequence.
Animation 5 (0:37) (4MB,Mpeg4): Queuing at Ticket Booths
  • This animation shows several pedestrians joining a ticket queue and waiting for an open booth in order to purchase a ticket.

Images - Pedestrian Activity in the Train Station

Click on the thumbnail images below to see full-size versions.

Bird's Eye View of the Populated Penn Station Model

Main Waiting Room




Stairs, Gates and Exits



Upper Concourse